John Phillips , the founder of Phillips Exeter Academy. First Academy Building c. Engraving of Harvard College by Paul Revere , John Harvard statue , Harvard Yard. Harvard Yard as seen from Holyoke Center. Stevens Institute of Technology's Women's Volleyball team in action during the fall season. The Bethlehem Steel plant, photographed circa by William H.
Aerial view of the Exposition Universelle. Academy and College of Philadelphia c.
Benjamin Franklin was the primary founder, President of the Board of Trustees and a trustee of the Academy and College of Philadelphia , which merged with the University of the State of Pennsylvania to form the University of Pennsylvania in Charles Willson Peale , Ninth Street Campus above Chestnut Street: Medical Hall left and College Hall right , both built — American Philosophical Society, George Washington presiding over the signing of the United States Constitution.
United States Congress meeting, c. The United States Capitol. Congress's "power of the purse" authorizes taxing citizens, spending money, and printing currency. Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows. Frederick Taylor — , leading proponent of scientific management.
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East German machine tool builders, A machinist at the Tabor Company, a firm where Frederick Taylor's consultancy was applied to practice, about Frank Bunker Gilbreth Sr. Gilbreth in about One of Carl G. Barth's speed-and-feed slide rules. Collecting the whole knowledge of the workers, creating rules and regulations and form a science for each process was no duty for the men Taylor, , p. In other words the management had to ensure that each worker on each day knew exactly what he had to do how he had to do it and in what period of time Taylor, , p.
Accordingly, this combination of work sharing and the change of the attitude to work are the factors for success of scientific management. The human relations theory HRT has evolved in the s and s Grey, , p. With the help of these studies the enterprise was able to analyze in which way the output of employees change due to diversifying the conditions of employment. Therefor, they established two focus groups which were exposed to different illumination levels.
However, analysts noticed that the output in those test groups increased independently from lighting conditions Pugh, , p.
Employees felt rather motivated by the particular attention they received. They got the feeling of being something special and not just a factor of producing products Grey, , p. In other words, only the actuality that workers were observed was the reason for this increased productivity. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the workforce can also be motivated by non economical factors. The HRT concerns with the aims, wishes and interests of the employees. Moreover, it supported measures to improve team work, cooperation between management and the workforce, internal communication and social relationships Slattery, , p.
The idea was to create a social and friendly business environment to motivate the whole crew.
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Furthermore the employees should get in contact with each other to achieve a feeling of harmony in the organization. Development and integration of the workforce instead of oppression were further key elements Slattery, , p. These efforts pay off. Productivity and staff satisfaction increased.
- Male influence and emancipation in Sarah Orne Jewett's A White Heron.
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In addition the employees get a deeper relationship with the enterprise through a humanitarian working atmosphere. As a result, the informal side of the company is at least as fundamental as the formal side Grey, , p. However, the most difficult exercise was to transfer this theory into practice because the management had to change their view basically.
Now needs and interest of the workers were in a particular focal point.
Managers had received trainings in human relations that enable them to change the predominant business environment Parker et. Accordingly the HRT has lead to principle changes in management, working conditions and in the organization as a whole. Business economics - Personnel and Organisation. Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance. American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography. Politics - International Politics - Topic: History of Inernational Relations. Politics - International Politics - Environmental Policy. Politics - International Politics - General and Theories.
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Table of contents 1.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Explanation of scientific management 3. Explanation of human relations theory 4. Similarities of scientific management and human relations theory 5. List of references 1.
Introduction Maximizing efficiency, reducing costs and increasing profits are facts which will be always of high interest for companies. Explanation of scientific management Frederick Winslow Taylor was the founder of the scientific management SM also referred to as Taylorism Thompson and McHugh, , p.
Explanation of human relations theory The human relations theory HRT has evolved in the s and s Grey, , p.
Frederick Winslow Taylor - WikiVividly
Grey argues that scientific management and human relations a Markenbindung in der Generation Y. Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management. Influence on America du HR professionals and the task of facilitati How does feminist theorising enrich our understanding of Internatio